Europe's secular character reflects the Enlightenment values of individual liberty, humanism, equality and rationalism.

Yet Europe has traditionally hosted a plethora of the world's dominant religions that have emphasised the importance of ancient practices and belief systems that seem to oppose the secular principles of human-rights-based Enlightenment Europe. Indeed, some view that religious practices and doctrines allow people to violate human rights.

Yet religion itself is protected as a human right: the "freedom of individual conscience" and belief. Otherwise, we relapse to the anti-religious position of a Soviet-style state.

What is the fine line between the two?

Are religious values juxtaposed to the secular ethos of European "modernity"?